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Complete list of publications

2011
--Brewer, M. T., Cadle-Davidson, L., Cortesi, P., Spanu, P. D., Milgroom, M. G., 2011. Identification and structure of the mating-type locus and development of PCR-based markers for mating type in powdery mildew fungi. Fungal Genetics and Biology (in press).
--Frenkel O, Portillo I, Brewer MT, Péros J-P, Cadle-Davidson L, Milgroom MG, 2011. Development of microsatellite markers from the transcriptome of Erysiphe necator for analyzing population structure in North America and Europe. Plant Pathology (accepted with revision).
--Gadoury, D. M., Cadle-Davidson, L., Wilcox, W. F., Dry, I., Seem, R. C., Milgroom, M. G., 2011. Grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator): a fascinating system for the study of the biology, ecology, and the epidemiology of an obligate biotroph. Molecular Plant Pathology (accepted with revision).
--González-Varela G, González AJ, Milgroom MG, 2011. Clonal population structure and introductions of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria, parasitica, in Asturias, northern Spain. European Journal of Plant Pathology, (in press).
--Milgroom, M. G. and Hillman, B. I. 2011. Ecology and evolution of fungal viruses. In: Studies in Viral Ecology. (Hurst, C. J., ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley - Blackwell Publishing. (in press).
--Sotirovski K., Rigling D., Heiniger U., Milgroom M.G., 2011. Variation in virulence of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV-1) in Macedonia. Forest Pathol doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0329.2009.00637.x. [abstract][full text]
-- Wakefield, L., Gadoury, D. M., Seem, R. C., Milgroom, M. G., Sun, Q. and Cadle-Davidson, L. 2011. Differential gene expression during conidiation in the grape powdery mildew fungus, >Erysiphe necator. Phytopathology (in press). [abstract][full text]

2010
--Brewer MT, Milgroom MG, 2010. Phylogeography and population structure of the grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, from diverse Vitis species. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 10: 268. [full text]
--Dunn, A. R., Milgroom, M. G., Meitz, J. C., McLeod, A., Fry, W. E., McGrath, M. T., Dillard, H. R., Smart, C. D., 2010. Population structure and resistance to mefenoxam of Phytophthora capsici in New York State. Plant Dis. 94: 1461-1468 [abstract][full text]
--Frenkel O, Brewer MT, Milgroom MG, 2010. Variation in pathogenicity and aggressiveness of Erysiphe necator from different Vitis species and geographic origins in the eastern United States. Phythopathology 100: 1185-1193. [abstract][full text].
--Park, S.-Y., Chi, M.-H., Milgroom, M. G., Kim, H., Han, S. S., Kang, S., Lee, Y.-H., 2010. Genetic stability of Magnaporthe oryzae during successive passages through rice plants and on artificial medium. Plant Pathology Journal 26: 313-320.
--Spanu, P. D., Abbott, J. C., Amselem, J., Burgis, T. A., Soanes, D. M., Stüber, K., van Themaat, E. V. L., Brown, J. K. M., Butcher, S. A., Gurr, S. J., Lebrun, M.-H., Ridout, C. J., Schulze-Lefert, P., Talbot, N. J., Ahmadinejad, N., Ametz, C., Barton, G. R., Benjdia, M., Bidzinski, P., Bindschedler, L. V., Both, M., Brewer, M. T., Cadle-Davidson, L., Cadle-Davidson, M. M., Collemare, J., Cramer, R., Frenkel, O., Godfrey, D., Harriman, J., Hoede, C., King, B. C., Klages, S., Kleemann, J., Knoll, D., Koti, P. S., Kreplak, J., López-Ruiz, F. J., Lu, X., Maekawa, T., Mahanil, S., Micali, C., Milgroom, M. G., Montana, G., Noir, S., O'Connell, R. J., Oberhaensli, S., Parlange, F., Pedersen, C., Quesneville, H., Reinhardt, R., Rott, M., Sacristán, S., Schmidt, S. M., Schön, M., Skamnioti, P., Sommer, H., Stephens, A., Takahara, H., Thordal-Christensen, H., Vigouroux, M., Weßling, R., Wicker, T., Panstruga, R., 2010. Genome expansion and gene loss in powdery mildew fungi reveal tradeoffs in extreme parasitism. Science. 330: 1543-1546.  [abstract][pubmed]

2009
--Bentley A. R., Milgroom M. G., Leslie J. F., Summerell B. A., and Burgess L. W. 2009. Spatial aggregation in Fusarium pseudograminearum populations from the Australian grain belt. Plant Pathol. 58: 23-32.[abstract][pdf]
--Liu, M., Milgroom, M.G., Chaverri, P., Hodge, K.T., 2009. Speciation of a tropical fungal species pair following transoceanic dispersal. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 51: 413-426. [abstract][pdf]
--Milgroom, M.G., Sotirovski, K., Risteski, M., Brewer, M.T. 2009. Heterokaryons and recombinants of Cryphonectria parasitica in two clonal populations in southeastern Europe. Fungal Genet. Biol. 46: 849-854. [abstract][pdf]

2008
--Cortesi, P., Pizzatti, C., Bertocchi, D., and Milgroom, M. G. 2008. Persistence and spatial autocorrelation of clones of Erysiphe necator overwintering as mycelium in dormant buds in an isolated vineyard in northern Italy. Phytopathology 98:148-152 [abstract][pdf]
--Milgroom MG, Sotirovski K, Spica D, Davis JE, Brewer MT, Milev M, Cortesi P, 2008. Clonal population structure of the chestnut blight fungus in expanding ranges in southeastern Europe. Molecular Ecology 17: 4446-445 [abstract][pdf]
--Papazova-Anakieva, I., Sotirovski, K., Cortesi, P., and Milgroom, M. G. 2008. Horizontal transmission of hypoviruses between vegetative compatibility types of Cryphonectria parasitica in Macedonia. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 120:35-42. [abstract][pdf]
--Park, S.-Y., Milgroom, M. G., Han, S. S., Kang, S., and Lee, Y.-H. 2008. Genetic differentiation of Magnaporthe oryzae populations from scouting plots and commercial rice fields in Korea. Phytopathology 98:436-442. [abstract][pdf]

2007
--Bennett, R. S., Milgroom, M. G., Sainudiin, R., Cunfer, B. M., and Bergstrom, G. C. 2007. Contributions of seedborne and immigrant inocula to foliar epidemics of Phaeosphaeria nodorum. Phythopathology 97: 584-591. [pdf]
--Kubisiak, T. L., Dutech, C., and Milgroom, M. G. 2007. Fifty-three polymorphic microsatellite loci in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Mol. Ecol. Notes 7: 428-432 [abstract][pdf]
--Liu, Y.-C., Dynek, J. N., Hillman, B. I., and Milgroom, M. G. 2007. Diversity of viruses in Cryphonectria parasitica and C. nitschkei in Japan and China, and partial characterization of a new chrysovirus species. Mycological Research 111: 433-442. [abstract][pdf]
--Liu, Y.-C., and Milgroom, M. G. 2007. High diversity of vegetative compatibility types in Cryphonectria parasitica in Japan and China. Mycologia 99: 279-284. [abstract][pdf]

2006
--Kubisiak, T. L., and Milgroom, M. G. 2006. Markers linked to vegetative incompatibility (vic) loci and a region of reduced recombination near the mating type locus (MAT) in Cryphonectria parasitica. Fungal Genet. Biol. 43: 453-463. [PubMed]
--Smith, M. L., Gibbs, C. C., and Milgroom, M. G. 2006. Heterokaryon incompatibility function of vegetative incompatibility genes (vic) in Cryphonectria parasitica. Mycologia 98: 43-50. [abstract][pdf]
--Sotirovski, K., Milgroom, M. G., Rigling, D., and Heiniger, U. 2006. Occurrence of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 in the chestnut blight fungus in Macedonia. Forest Pathology 36: 136-143. [abstract][pdf]

2005
--Bennett, R. S., Milgroom, M. G., and Bergstrom, G. C. 2005. Population structure of seedborne Stagonospora nodorum on New York wheat. Phythopathology 95: 300-305. [pdf]
--Cortesi, P., Mazzoleni, A., Pizzatti, C., and Milgroom, M. G. 2005. Genetic similarity of flag shoot and ascospore subpopulations of Erysiphe necator in Italy. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71: 7788-7791. [PubMed]
--Davis J. E., Kubisiak T. L., Milgroom M. G. 2005. Polymorphic sequence-characterized codominant loci in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Molecular Ecology Notes 5: 195-197. [abstract][pdf]
--McGuire, I. C., Davis, J. E., Double, M. L., MacDonald, W. L., Rauscher, J. T., McCawley, S., and Milgroom, M. G. 2005. Heterokaryon formation and parasexuality between vegetatively incompatible lineages in a population of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Mol. Ecol. 14: 3657-3669. [PubMed]
--Nielsen, C., M. G. Milgroom, and A. E. Hajek. 2005. Genetic diversity in the gypsy moth fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga from founder populations in North America and source populations in Asia. Mycol. Res. 109: 941-950. [PubMed]

2004
--Carbone, I., Liu, Y.-C., Hillman, B. I., and Milgroom, M. G. 2004. Recombination and migration of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 as inferred from gene genealogies and the coalescent. Genetics 166: 1611-1629. [PubMed]
--Cortesi, P., Ottaviani, M.-P., Milgroom, M. G. 2004. Spatial and genetic analysis of a flag shoot subpopulation of Erysiphe necator. Phythopathology 94:544-550. [pdf]
--Jiménez-Gasco, M. M., Milgroom, M. G., and Jiménez-Díaz, R. M. 2004. Stepwise evolution of races in a plant pathogenic fungus inferred from fingerprinting with repetitive DNA sequences. Phythopathology 94:228-235. [pdf]
--Marra, R. E., Cortesi, P., Bissegger, M., and Milgroom, M. G. 2004. Mixed mating in natural populations of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Heredity 93:189-195. [PubMed]
--McGuire, I. C., Marra, R. E., and Milgroom, M. G. 2004. Mating-type heterokaryosis and selfing in Cryphonectria parasitica. Fung. Genet. Biol. 41:521-533. [PubMed]
--Milgroom, M. G., and Cortesi, P. 2004. Biological control of chestnut blight with hypovirulence: a critical analysis. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 42:311-338. [PubMed]
--Myburg, H., Gryzenhout, M., Wingfield, B. D., Milgroom, M. G., Kaneko, S., and Wingfield, M. J. 2004. DNA sequence data and morphology define Cryphonectria species in Europe, China and Japan. Can. J. Bot. 82:1730-1743. [abstract][pdf]
--Sotirovski, K., Papazova-Anakieva, I., Grünwald, N. J., and Milgroom, M. G. 2004. Low diversity of vegetative compatibility types and mating type in Cryphonectria parasitica in the southern Balkans. Plant Pathol. 53:325-333. [abstract][pdf]
--Wang, K., Zhou, Y., and Milgroom, M. G. 2004. Comparison of genetic structures among Cryphonectria parasitica populations from China, Japan and the USA. Scientia Silvae Sinicae 40:127-131.

2003
--Grünwald, N. J., Goodwin, S. B., Milgroom, M. G., and Fry, W. E. 2003. Analysis of genotypic diversity data for populations of microorganisms. Phytopathology 93:738-746. [pdf]
--Liu, Y.-C., Hillman, B. I., Linder-Basso, D., Kaneko, S., and Milgroom, M. G. 2003. Evidence for interspecies transmission of viruses in natural populations of filamentous fungi in the genus Cryphonectria. Molecular Ecology 12:1619-1628. [PubMed]
--Milgroom, M. G., and Peever, T. L. 2003. Population biology of plant pathogens: the synthesis of plant disease epidemiology and population genetics. Plant Dis. 87:608-617. [pdf]
--Park, S.-Y., Milgroom, M. G., Han, S. S., Kang, S., and Lee, Y.-H. 2003. Diversity of pathotypes and DNA fingerprint haplotypes in populations of Magnaporthe grisea in Korea over two decades. Phytopathology 93:1378-1385. [pdf]

2002
--Biella, S., Smith, M. L., Aist, J. R., Cortesi, P., and Milgroom, M. G. 2002. Programmed cell death correlates with virus transmission in a filamentous fungus. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 269:2269-2276. [PubMed]
--Jiménez-Gasco, M. M., Milgroom, M. G., and Jiménez-Díaz, R. M. 2002. Gene genealogies support Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris as a monophyletic group. Plant Pathol. 51:73-77. [abstract][pdf]
--Liu, Y.-C., Double, M. L., MacDonald, W. L., and Milgroom, M. G. 2002. Persistence of Cryphonectria hypoviruses after their release for biological control of chestnut blight in West Virginia forests. For. Pathol. 32:345-356. [abstract][pdf]

2001
--Cortesi, P., McCulloch, C. E., Song, H., Lin, H., and Milgroom, M. G. 2001. Genetic control of horizontal virus transmission in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Genetics 159:107-118. [PubMed]
--Cortesi, P., and Milgroom, M. G. 2001. Outcrossing and diversity of vegetative compatibility types in populations of Eutypa lata from grapevines. Journal of Plant Pathology 83:79-86. [pdf]
--Marra, R. E., and Milgroom, M. G. 2001. The mating system of the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica: selfing and self-incompatibility. Heredity 86:134-143. [PubMed]
--McGuire, I. C., Marra, R. E., Turgeon, B. G., and Milgroom, M. G. 2001. Analysis of mating type genes in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Fungal Genet. Biol. 34:131–144. [PubMed]
--Milgroom, M. G. 2001. The synthesis of genetics and epidemiology: contributions of population biology in plant pathology. Journal of Plant Pathology 83:57-62. [pdf]

2000
--Cortesi, P., Fischer, M., and Milgroom, M. G. 2000. Identification and spread of Fomitiporia punctata associated with wood decay of grapevine showing symptoms of esca disease. Phytopathology 90:967-972. [pdf]
--Liu, Y.-C., Durrett, R., and Milgroom, M. G. 2000. A spatially-structured stochastic model to simulate heterogeneous transmission of viruses in fungal populations. Ecol. Model. 127:291-308. [abstract][pdf]
--Peever, T. L., Liu, Y.-C., Cortesi, P., and Milgroom, M. G. 2000. Variation in tolerance and virulence in the chestnut blight fungus-hypovirus interaction. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:4863-4869. [PubMed]

1999
--Mahoney, E. M., Milgroom, M. G., Sinclair, W. A., and Houston, D. R. 1999. Origin, genetic diversity, and population structure of Nectria coccinea var. faginata in North America. Mycologia 91:583-592.
--Marra, R. E., and Milgroom, M. G. 1999. PCR amplification of the mating type idiomorphs in Cryphonectria parasitica. Molecular Ecology 8:1947-1950. [PubMed]
--Milgroom, M. G. 1999. Viruses in fungal populations In Structure and dynamics of fungal populations (J. J. Worrall, ed), pp. 283-305. Kluwer Academic Publ, Dordrecht.
--Milgroom, M. G., and Cortesi, P. 1999. Analysis of population structure of the chestnut blight fungus based on vegetative incompatibility genotypes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:10518-10523. [PubMed]

1998
--Cortesi, P., and Milgroom, M. G. 1998. Genetics of vegetative incompatibility in Cryphonectria parasitica. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:2988-2994. [PubMed]
--Peever, T. L., Liu, Y.-C., Wang, K., Hillman, B. I., Foglia, R., and Milgroom, M. G. 1998. Incidence and diversity of double-stranded RNAs infecting the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, in China and Japan. Phytopathology 88:811-817. [pdf]

1997
--Milgroom, M. G. 1997. Genetic variation and the application of genetic markers for studying plant pathogen populations. Journal of Plant Pathology 78:1-13.
--Milgroom, M. G., and Brasier, C. M. 1997. Potential diversity in vegetative incompatibility types of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi in North America. Mycologia 89:722-726.
--Milgroom, M. G., and Fry, W. E. 1997. Contributions of population genetics to plant disease epidemiology and management. Adv. Bot. Res. 24:1-30.
--Peever, T. L., Liu, Y.-C., and Milgroom, M. G. 1997. Diversity of hypoviruses and other double-stranded RNAs in Cryphonectria parasitica in North America. Phytopathology 87:1026-1033. [pdf]

1996
--Cortesi, P., Milgroom, M. G., and Bisiach, M. 1996. Distribution and diversity of vegetative compatibility types in subpopulations of Cryphonectria parasitica in Italy. Mycol. Res. 100:1087-1093.
--Liu, Y.-C., Cortesi, P., Double, M. L., MacDonald, W. L., and Milgroom, M. G. 1996. Diversity and multilocus genetic structure in populations of Cryphonectria parasitica. Phytopathology 86:1344-1451. [pdf]
--Liu, Y.-C., and Milgroom, M. G. 1996. Correlation between hypovirus transmission and the number of vegetative incompatibility (vic) genes different among isolates from a natural population of Cryphonectria parasitica. Phytopathology 86:79-86. [pdf]
--Milgroom, M. G. 1996. Recombination and the multilocus structure of fungal populations. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 34:457-477. [PubMed]
--Milgroom, M. G., Wang, K., Zhou, Y., Lipari, S. E., and Kaneko, S. 1996. Intercontinental population structure of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Mycologia 88:179-190.
--Mueller, U. G., Lipari, S. E., and Milgroom, M. G. 1996. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting of symbiotic fungi cultured by the fungus-growing ant Cryphomyrmex minutus. Mol. Ecol. 5:119-222. [PubMed]

1995
--Kohli, Y., Brunner, L. J., Yoell, H., Milgroom, M. G., Anderson, J. B., Morrall, R. A. A., and Kohn, L. M. 1995. Clonal dispersal and spatial mixing in populations of the plant pathogenic fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Mol. Ecol. 4:69-77. [abstract]
--Milgroom, M. G. 1995. Analysis of population structure in fungal plant pathogens In Disease analysis through genetics and molecular biology: Interdisciplinary bridges to improved sorghum and millet crops (J. F. Leslie and R. A. Frederiksen, eds), pp. 213-229. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, IA.
--Milgroom, M. G. 1995. Population biology of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Can. J. Bot. 73 (Suppl. 1):S311-S319. [pdf]
--Milgroom, M. G., and Lipari, S. E. 1995. Population differentiation in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, in eastern North America. Phytopathology 85:155-160. [pdf]
--Milgroom, M. G., and Lipari, S. E. 1995. Spatial analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial RFLP genotypes in populations of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Molecular Ecology 4:633-642. [PubMed]
--Peever, T. L., and Milgroom, M. G. 1995. Fungicide resistance: lessons for herbicide resistance management? Weed Technol 9:840-849.
--Peever, T. L., and Milgroom, M. G. 1995. Genetic correlations in resistance to morpholine and piperidine fungicides in Pyrenophora teres. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 101:93-99.
--Zhou, E., Wang, K., Liu, F., Lu, J., and Milgroom, M. G. 1995. Detection of double-stranded RNA in Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr with monoclonal antibodies. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica 25:91-92.

1994
--Peever, T., and Milgroom, M. 1994a. Lack of correlation between fitness and resistance to sterol biosynthesis-inhibiting fungicides in Pyrenophora teres. Phytopathology 84:515-519.
--Peever, T. L., Brant, A., Bergstrom, G. C., and Milgroom, M. G. 1994. Selection for decreased sensitivity to propiconazole in experimental field populations of Stagonospora nodorum (syn. Septoria nodorum). Can. J. Pl. Path. 16:109-117.
--Peever, T. L., and Milgroom, M. G. 1994b. Genetic structure of Pyrenophora teres populations determined with RAPD markers. Can. J. Bot. 72:915-923.
--Polashock, J. J., Anagnostakis, S. L., Milgroom, M. G., and Hillman, B. I. 1994. Isolation and characterization of a virus-resistant mutant of the chestnut blight fungus. Curr. Genet. 26:528-534. [PubMed]

1993
--Milgroom, M. G., and Lipari, S. E. 1993. Maternal inheritance and diversity of mitochondrial DNA in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Phytopathology 83:563-567. [pdf]
--Milgroom, M. G., Lipari, S. E., Ennos, R. A., and Liu, Y.-C. 1993. Estimation of the outcrossing rate in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Heredity 70:385-392. [pdf]

1992
--Fry, W. E., Goodwin, S. B., Matuszak, J. M., Spielman, L. J., Milgroom, M. G., and Drenth, A. 1992. Population genetics and intercontinental migrations of Phytophthora infestans. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 30:107-129.
--Gordon, T. R., Okamoto, D., and Milgroom, M. G. 1992. The structure and interrelationship of fungal populations in native and cultivated soils. Mol. Ecol. 1:241-249.
--Milgroom, M. G., Lipari, S. E., and Powell, W. A. 1992. DNA fingerprinting and analysis of population structure in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Genetics 131:297-306. [PubMed]
--Milgroom, M. G., Lipari, S. E., and Wang, K. 1992. Comparison of genetic diversity in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria (Endothia) parasitica, from China and the US. Mycol. Res. 96:1114-1120.
--Peever, T. L., and Milgroom, M. G. 1992. Inheritance of triadimenol resistance in Pyrenophora teres. Phytopathology 82:821-828.

1991
--Milgroom, M. G., MacDonald, W. L., and Double, M. L. 1991. Spatial analysis of vegetative compatibility groups in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Can. J. Bot. 69:1407-1413. [pdf]

1990
--Doster, M. A., Milgroom, M. G., and Fry, W. E. 1990. Quantification of factors influencing potato late blight suppression and selection for metalaxyl resistance in Phytophthora infestans: A simulation approach. Phytopathology 80:1190-1198.
--Fry, W. E., and Milgroom, M. G. 1990. Population biology and management of fungicide resistance In Managing resistance to agrochemicals (M. B. Green, H. M. LeBaron and W. K. Moberg, eds), pp. 275-285. American Chemical Soc., Wash. D.C.
--Milgroom, M. G. 1990. A stochastic model for the initial occurrence and development of fungicide resistance in plant pathogen populations. Phytopathology 80:410-416.

1989
--Milgroom, M. G., Levin, S. A., and Fry, W. E. 1989. Population genetics theory and fungicide resistance In Plant disease epidemiology (K. J. Leonard and W. E. Fry, eds), pp. 340-367. McGraw-Hill Publ, New York.

1988
--Milgroom, M. G., and Fry, W. E. 1988. A simulation analysis of the epidemiological principles for fungicide resistance management in pathogen populations. Phytopathology 78:565-570.
--Milgroom, M. G., and Fry, W. E. 1988. A model for the effects of metalaxyl on potato late blight epidemics. Phytopathology 78:559-565.
--Milgroom, M. G., McCulloch, C. E., and Fry, W. E. 1988. Distribution and temporal dynamics of metalaxyl in potato foliage. Phytopathology 78:555-559.

1987
--Milgroom, M. G., and Fry, W. E. 1987. A metalaxyl bioassay for a large number of small foliar samples. Phytopathology 77:237-240.

--Van Bruggen, A. H. C., Milgroom, M. G., Osmeloski, J., Fry, W. E., and Jacobsen, J. 1987. Attenuation of metalaxyl on potato leaves by simulated acidic rain and residence time. Phytopathology 77:401-406.