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Viruses, virus transmission and hypovirulence in Cryphonectria parasitica

--Milgroom, M. G. and Hillman, B. I. 2011. Ecology and evolution of fungal viruses. In: C. J. Hurst, (Ed.), Studies in Viral Ecology: Volume One: Microbial and Botanical Host Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, pp. 221-257.

--Sotirovski K., Rigling D., Heiniger U., Milgroom M.G., 2011. Variation in virulence of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV-1) in Macedonia. Forest Pathology 41:59-65 [article].

--Papazova-Anakieva, I., Sotirovski, K., Cortesi, P., and Milgroom, M. G. 2008. Horizontal transmission of hypoviruses between vegetative compatibility types of Cryphonectria parasitica in Macedonia. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 120:35-42. [full text]

--Liu, Y.-C., Dynek, J. N., Hillman, B. I., and Milgroom, M. G. 2007. Diversity of viruses in Cryphonectria parasitica and C. nitschkei in Japan and China, and partial characterization of a new chrysovirus species. Mycological Research 111: 433-442. [full text]

--Sotirovski, K., Milgroom, M. G., Rigling, D., and Heiniger, U. 2006. Occurrence of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 in the chestnut blight fungus in Macedonia. Forest Pathology 36: 136-143. [Abstract] [full text]

--Carbone, I., Liu, Y.-C., Hillman, B. I., and Milgroom, M. G. 2004. Recombination and migration of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 as inferred from gene genealogies and the coalescent. Genetics 166: 1611-1629. [PubMed]
--Milgroom, M. G., and Cortesi, P. 2004. Biological control of chestnut blight with hypovirulence: a critical analysis. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 42:311-338. [PubMed]

--Liu, Y.-C., Hillman, B. I., Linder-Basso, D., Kaneko, S., and Milgroom, M. G. 2003. Evidence for interspecies transmission of viruses in natural populations of filamentous fungi in the genus Cryphonectria. Molecular Ecology 12:1619-1628. [PubMed]

--Biella, S., Smith, M. L., Aist, J. R., Cortesi, P., and Milgroom, M. G. 2002. Programmed cell death correlates with virus transmission in a filamentous fungus. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 269:2269-2276. [PubMed]
--Liu, Y.-C., Double, M. L., MacDonald, W. L., and Milgroom, M. G. 2002. Persistence of Cryphonectria hypoviruses after their release for biological control of chestnut blight in West Virginia forests. For. Pathol. 32:345-356. [Abstract] [full text]

--Cortesi, P., McCulloch, C. E., Song, H., Lin, H., and Milgroom, M. G. 2001. Genetic control of horizontal virus transmission in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Genetics 159:107-118. [PubMed]

--Liu, Y.-C., Durrett, R., and Milgroom, M. G. 2000. A spatially-structured stochastic model to simulate heterogeneous transmission of viruses in fungal populations. Ecol. Model. 127:291-308. [Abstract] [pdf]
--Peever, T. L., Liu, Y.-C., Cortesi, P., and Milgroom, M. G. 2000. Variation in tolerance and virulence in the chestnut blight fungus-hypovirus interaction. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:4863-4869. [PubMed]

--Milgroom, M. G. 1999. Viruses in fungal populations In Structure and dynamics of fungal populations (J. J. Worrall, ed), pp. 283-305. Kluwer Academic Publ, Dordrecht.

--Peever, T. L., Liu, Y.-C., Wang, K., Hillman, B. I., Foglia, R., and Milgroom, M. G. 1998. Incidence and diversity of double-stranded RNAs infecting the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, in China and Japan. Phytopathology 88:811-817. [pdf]

--Peever, T. L., Liu, Y.-C., and Milgroom, M. G. 1997. Diversity of hypoviruses and other double-stranded RNAs in Cryphonectria parasitica in North America. Phytopathology 87:1026-1033. [pdf]

--Liu, Y.-C., and Milgroom, M. G. 1996. Correlation between hypovirus transmission and the number of vegetative incompatibility (vic) genes different among isolates from a natural population of Cryphonectria parasitica. Phytopathology 86:79-86.

--Zhou, E., Wang, K., Liu, F., Lu, J., and Milgroom, M. G. 1995. Detection of double-stranded RNA in Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr with monoclonal antibodies. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica 25:91-92.

--Polashock, J. J., Anagnostakis, S. L., Milgroom, M. G., and Hillman, B. I. 1994. Isolation and characterization of a virus-resistant mutant of the chestnut blight fungus. Curr. Genet. 26:528-534. [PubMed]

Virus transmission assay2

Assay in culture for the transmission of hypovirus CHV-1 between individuals of C. parasitica. The plate on the right shows the transmission of CHV-1 from the donor, the white mycelium on the right, into the recipient on the left with orange pigment. No transmission occurred in the plate on the left because of vegetative incompatibility between the donor and recipient.